Innovation: PROgress in Saving Proteins And Recovering Energy

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Keywords: 
veterinary and animal sciences
The animal by-products (AB-P) industry has always been a vital part of the world food production chain, providing valuable new products and reducing pollution loads. Anyway, the treatment of animal bio-resources requires new and safe biotechnological tools and processes are developed. PROSPARE aims at developing a technological platform for multi-purpose processing of AB-P, in particular poultry ones, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sector needs. Using a novel bio-catalytic approach unmarketable poultry secondary resources will be converted into value added peptide hydrolysates leading to marketable end-products, with programmable nutritional properties, and bio-diesel. Innovative techniques will be used for the molecular characterization of the hydrolyzates.

Safety issues associated with new technologies will be properly addressed and novel methods to assess the healthiness of intermediate and end-products developed and compared to standard ones. Platform feasibility will be demonstrated by scaling up to pre-industrial pilot level. The technological innovations will allow obtaining a range of products with programmed functional properties and sensory characteristics that will appeal to consumer objective and subjective requests.

PROJECT GOALS:

PROgress in Saving Proteins And Recovering Energy
The animal by-products industry has always been a vital part of the world food production chain, providing valuable new products while reducing pollution loads. Hanyway, the treatment of animal bioresources requires new and safe biotechnological tools and processes are developed. PROSPARE
has aimed at developing a technological platform for multi-purposes processing of AB-P, in particular poultry ones, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sector needs. Using a novel biocatalitic approach unmarketable poultry secondary resources are converted into value added peptide hydrilyzates
leading to marketable end-products with programmable nutritional properties, and biodiesel. Innovative techniques
have been used for the molecular characterization of the hydrolyzates. Safety issues associated with new technologies
have been properly addressed and novel methods to assess the healthiness of intermediate and end-products developed and compared to standard
ones.
The outcome of
the PROSPARE project
has likely generated a significant technological breakthrough of AB-P treatment.
Therefore this
can have an impacting contribution also
on the
evolving Regulatory Frameworks both in EU and RF.

There is
can indeed be transformed in novel products and energy.

The project has aimed at showing how to obtain and characterise value added peptide mixtures, starting from different raw materials, and ultimately how to make them available to industry for further larger scale processing. Such peptide mixtures can be exploited in the food, feed and green chemicals (cosmetic and microbiological sector) chains.

In addition, also raw fat materials can be obtained and suitably transformed in biofuels. In short th e project
has indicated how to build a technology platform for multi-purpose processing of animal by-products, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sectors needs.

Four
key added values of this
technology platform can be summarized:
Utilization – unmarketable animal residues (non-valuable meat and poultry processing intermediates)
are subjected to conversion processes based on technological innovations and biocatalytic approach with further scaling up to the pilot level;
Value – unmarketable animal residues
are converted into peptide hydrolysates of high food and feed value, while the accompanying fat and tallow will be exploited for renewable energy and soap&organic chemicals production;
Functionality – through technological innovations a range of products

is obtained with programmed functional properties and sensory characteristics, which should meet consumer expectation while satisfying a wide range of objective and subjective requirements (taste, aroma, rheology, balanced amino acid composition, digestibility, controlled content of bioactive peptides, absence of abnormal or poorly metabolized compounds, low allergenicity, high antioxidant capacity, etc.).
Safety – a panel of standard and developed methods
applied along the whole technological chain to ensure end-product safety.

The PROSPARE consortium has envisaged targeting the following main strategic objectives endorsed by its Steering Committee:
to design non waste technologies for processing unmarketable animal residues, by means of technological equipment innovations and
efficient biocatalytic conversion processes based on new enzyme compositions, leading to marketable end-products, with programmed nutritional properties, and biofuels;
to develop a range of complementary low-cost techniques for monitoring microbial contamination and novel tracing tools for mycotoxins detection;
to insure that the safety of developed food ingredients complies to EC and RF regulations;
to study functional properties of newly produced food ingredients(hydrolysates) by using standard and newly developed assay methods;
to develop end products and food additives with specific functional properties using protein hydrolysates with programmed characteristics;
to convert laboratory results into larger scale pilot demonstration plants;
to widen the current knowledge based on techniques for bioconversion of animal by-products into new target products - biofuel and high quality food and feed so to pave the road for an increased exploitation of animal residues and therefore the conservation of natural resources while decreasing environmental pollution;
to develop a technology platform for economically sustainable and environmentally sound multi-purpose processing of animal by-products, in particular poultry ones, aiming at giving birth to a new generation of food ingredients with designed properties for different industrial sectors.

The originality of PROSPARE lies in the exploitation of unmarketable animal residues based on efficient bioconversion technological methods and biocatalysts (enzyme and/or enzymatic compositions), with subsidiary very hi-rate production of renewable energy and biologically valuable substances.
Taking into consideration increased consumers demands as well as applicable legislations, the new processing technologies should meet broad (EU, RF) requirements of food safety while being economically sustainable.

The interdisciplinary character of the investigation is clearly demonstrated by the parallel application of biotechnological, chemical, biophysical, physico-chemical, biochemical, immunological and toxicological studies, as well as the industrial trials for the evaluation of proposed technologies.

The innovative aspects of PROSPARE include the individual objectives achieved through the workpackages where high edge modern techniques are applied, and integrated into a comprehensive bioconversion platform for industrial exploitation.
Beyond the state-of-the-art

A variety of by-products have made a contribution to the value of the animal, by finding a better wayfor further processing.
Traditional exploitation of the protein rich solids includes use in foods, petfoods, livestock feeds, and fertilizers.

Fats have been transformed into soaps and oleochemicals, inaddition to being used in food, pet foods and feed applications. However, many of these traditionalapplications have been lost or severely curtailed as a result of BSE and
stringent rules onlivestock feed. Therefore new outlets have been searched for.

The project PROSPARE aims to exploit these unmarketable animal residues based on efficientbioconversion technological methods and biocatalysts with subsidiary production of renewable energyand biologically valuable substances.These novel innovative technologies will be based on new enzyme compositions and technologicalequipment and will address physical and chemical properties of different types of by-products derivedfrom poultry slaughtering, in particular meat&bone and feathers residues that constitute the lion shareof the proteins of the by-products. With these technologies, a large quantity of refined fat will begenerated whose potential for traditional markets as well biofuel will be assessed.

For the conversionto biofuel in additional a new, robust technology will be developed.Poultry industry is currently most important source of inexpensive meat-derived proteins for humannutrition. Further growth and development of this sector of food industry is largely limited by thedeficit of balanced feed rich in proteins (of plant and/or animal origin). Moreover growth of poultryindustry generates large amount of waste. An average plant producing 10 mln. broilers a yeargenerates about 1,000 tons of feathers and 5,000 tons of meat & bone residues which are currentlylargely discarded and lead to environmental problems. Thus technologies developed in the frameworkof PROSPARE will target initially the poultry by-products. If the generic approach is successful itcould be easily extended to other animal derived by-products.
Meat&bone enzymatic treatment

Bones and meat trimmings contain up to 10% of a valuable and easily accessible protein fit even for human consumption. Although its mechanical separation is inefficient, solubilization by enzymatic hydrolysis may provide almost quantitative extraction of proteins/peptides to the liquid phase.

The enzymatic hydrolysis at neutral pH and relatively low temperature allows conservation of all the biologically valuable compounds such as amino acids, fats and VOC’s providing aroma. The known to date enzymatic protocols result in peptide mixtures poorly characterised and with unpleasant bitter taste that make them unsuitable for human consumption. In the frame of the project, the applicants will optimize the hydrolysis conditions in order to develop a range of Functional Animal Proteins (FAP) modifications adapted to a number of different food endproducts.

FAP enriched by short-chain peptide fractions could be applied to additives for diet food, whereas FAP with a higher content of long-chain peptides with a high water-retention and emulsifying ability may be demanded by meat-processing industries for the production of dry-bouillions. New enzymes and enzymatic blends produced by the applicants will be tested in parallel with commercially available preparations with regard to increase the protein yield from the raw material conserving optimal organoleptic and functional properties of the product.

The procedure of fat extraction from the bone and meat trimmings under mild conditions will be combined with the enzymatic hydrolysis. This will allow inexpensive production of high-quality fat as a side-product of FAP. This fat will be separated and channelled for food and animal feeding application as well as for biofuel production. Further
complete extraction of fat from the peptide hydrolyzates (FAP) will improve conservancy of the protein stuffs up on drying and storage, their solubility and dietary properties.

Mild conditions of short-term hydrothermic and enzymatic hydrolysis steps, finely tuned to the concrete types of the poultry slaughtering raw materials, will ensure high conservancy of the biologically valuable compounds and functional properties of the food and animal feeding stuffs - taste, aroma, rheology, balanced amino acid composition, digestibility, antioxidant ability, controlled
contents of bioactive peptides, absence of non-natural or poorly metabolized compounds.

FAP produced by new technologies is planned to be used as a food protein substance in instant foods
and processed meat products. Therefore it should be compared with protein additives present on the
market. These are soy bean protein and its hydrolysates, chicken egg white protein, whey milk protein,
cow milk caseins. In contrast to the soy bean derived protein or milk casein or egg white, the meat
protein does not contain allergens or protease inhibitors which suppress intestinal digestion. The animal protein is low glycosylated and not phosphorylated.

Its amino acid composition is relevant to the human or mammalian physiological demands. Taking into account the safety impact, FAP may occupy the same market niche as the dry plasma protein which is the most valuable but deficient
source of the food protein currently on the market.
Feathers treatment

Feathers contain 85% keratin (calculated on the basis of the dry weight), a poor soluble and heatresistant
protein with high content of cysteine and multiple intramolecular cross-links. Peptide bonds
within the keratin fibers are stabilized by a regular net of hydrogen bonds and poorly accessible for
enzymatic hydrolysis due to physical masking from water. Specialized keratine-hydrolyzing enzymes
(keratinases) are not yet commercially available although certain subtilisin-like proteases of bacillar
and fungal origin exhibit slightly elevated activity toward this substrate.

Recently a novel approach to the hydrolysis of the feather keratine was proposed. It includes a shortterm
extra-heating of the native feathers under simultaneous mechanical pressure that results in
disorganization of the hydrogen bond network and a partial non-enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein
mainchains. The resulting meal has a porous surface which is easily accessible for subsequent
enzymatic hydrolysis.

A series of preliminary studies using simple laboratory equipments, were performed by the applicants
of this project, aimed to test the feasibility of the new approach and to implement the technology of
short-term heating process, taking also into account variations in temperature, humidity and duration
of treatment.

The preliminary results obtained, showed a deeper state of hydrolysis of the feather keratin when
compared to the conventional protocols. In particular, if the material to be treated was additionally
humidified, optimal digestibility was observed.

Apparently short-term heating of the humidified feathers above 100°C activates water molecules that
agglomeration of the meal granules that conserve a porous surface susceptible to the enzymatic
proteolysis. Precise adjustment of the temperature and the treatment duration to the input material,
the new technological treatment, since it seems that an insufficient heating does not provide the
necessary water activation energy, whereas an excessive heating causes its prompt evaporation from
the granules, decreasing the water activity.

In the frame of the project we plan to understand physico-chemical mechanisms underpinning the
feather pre-treatment step that will enable proper tuning and control of the process. Moreover, the
feasibility of the proposed treatment on the pilot scale is to be confirmed and optimized. We also plan
to carry out an optimisation procedure based on a multifactor experiment which should provide 80-
85% digestibility of the obtained feather meal (compared to <55 % in the best available commercial
preparations).

Further enhancement to the properties of the resultant feather meal could be achieved through
application of the proper enzymatic treatment. Preliminary experiments show that, close to 100 %
solubility of the net protein could be achieved through careful adjustment of the enzymatic hydrolysis
step in terms of process conditions and enzyme compositions. During the project implementation we’ll
optimize the combined extrusion-enzymatic technology and test it on laboratory scale.

To summarize, this project aims to provide technological innovations on two levels.

First of all, it is aimed to recover the fat to a very large extent by using the new technology for
bioconversion of the meat&bone trimmings. By using this biocatalytic approach under mild
conditions, the fat is less prone to degradation (hydrolysis of the lipids) and a fat-stream with a higher
quality is anticipated.

Secondly, it is a goal of this project to provide a new robust technology for producing biodiesel from
animal fats which is economically favourable.
The animal by-products industry has always been a vital part of the world food production chain, providing valuable new products while reducing pollution loads. Hanyway, the treatment of animal bioresources requires new and safe biotechnological tools and processes are developed. PROSPARE
has aimed at developing a technological platform for multi-purposes processing of AB-P, in particular poultry ones, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sector needs. Using a novel biocatalitic approach unmarketable poultry secondary resources are converted into value added peptide hydrilyzates
leading to marketable end-products with programmable nutritional properties, and biodiesel. Innovative techniques
have been used for the molecular characterization of the hydrolyzates. Safety issues associated with new technologies
have been properly addressed and novel methods to assess the healthiness of intermediate and end-products developed and compared to standard
ones.
The outcome of
the PROSPARE project
has likely generated a significant technological breakthrough of AB-P treatment.
Therefore this
can have an impacting contribution also
on the
evolving Regulatory Frameworks both in EU and RF.

There is
can indeed be transformed in novel products and energy.

The project has aimed at showing how to obtain and characterise value added peptide mixtures, starting from different raw materials, and ultimately how to make them available to industry for further larger scale processing. Such peptide mixtures can be exploited in the food, feed and green chemicals (cosmetic and microbiological sector) chains.

In addition, also raw fat materials can be obtained and suitably transformed in biofuels. In short th e project
has indicated how to build a technology platform for multi-purpose processing of animal by-products, flexible enough to be tailored to different industrial sectors needs.

Four
key added values of this
technology platform can be summarized:
Utilization – unmarketable animal residues (non-valuable meat and poultry processing intermediates)
are subjected to conversion processes based on technological innovations and biocatalytic approach with further scaling up to the pilot level;
Value – unmarketable animal residues
are converted into peptide hydrolysates of high food and feed value, while the accompanying fat and tallow will be exploited for renewable energy and soap&organic chemicals production;
Functionality – through technological innovations a range of products

is obtained with programmed functional properties and sensory characteristics, which should meet consumer expectation while satisfying a wide range of objective and subjective requirements (taste, aroma, rheology, balanced amino acid composition, digestibility, controlled content of bioactive peptides, absence of abnormal or poorly metabolized compounds, low allergenicity, high antioxidant capacity, etc.).
Safety – a panel of standard and developed methods
applied along the whole technological chain to ensure end-product safety.

The PROSPARE consortium has envisaged targeting the following main strategic objectives endorsed by its Steering Committee:
to design non waste technologies for processing unmarketable animal residues, by means of technological equipment innovations and
efficient biocatalytic conversion processes based on new enzyme compositions, leading to marketable end-products, with programmed nutritional properties, and biofuels;
to develop a range of complementary low-cost techniques for monitoring microbial contamination and novel tracing tools for mycotoxins detection;
to insure that the safety of developed food ingredients complies to EC and RF regulations;
to study functional properties of newly produced food ingredients(hydrolysates) by using standard and newly developed assay methods;
to develop end products and food additives with specific functional properties using protein hydrolysates with programmed characteristics;
to convert laboratory results into larger scale pilot demonstration plants;
to widen the current knowledge based on techniques for bioconversion of animal by-products into new target products - biofuel and high quality food and feed so to pave the road for an increased exploitation of animal residues and therefore the conservation of natural resources while decreasing environmental pollution;
to develop a technology platform for economically sustainable and environmentally sound multi-purpose processing of animal by-products, in particular poultry ones, aiming at giving birth to a new generation of food ingredients with designed properties for different industrial sectors.

The originality of PROSPARE lies in the exploitation of unmarketable animal residues based on efficient bioconversion technological methods and biocatalysts (enzyme and/or enzymatic compositions), with subsidiary very hi-rate production of renewable energy and biologically valuable substances.
Taking into consideration increased consumers demands as well as applicable legislations, the new processing technologies should meet broad (EU, RF) requirements of food safety while being economically sustainable.

The interdisciplinary character of the investigation is clearly demonstrated by the parallel application of biotechnological, chemical, biophysical, physico-chemical, biochemical, immunological and toxicological studies, as well as the industrial trials for the evaluation of proposed technologies.

The innovative aspects of PROSPARE include the individual objectives achieved through the workpackages where high edge modern techniques are applied, and integrated into a comprehensive bioconversion platform for industrial exploitation.
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This innovation is the result of the project

Title: Progress in saving proteins and recovering energy

Acronym: 
PROSPARE

Runtime: 
01.09.2008 to 31.08.2011

Status: 
completed project

Organisations and people involved in this eco-innovation.

Please click on an entry to view all contact details.

UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI PARMA.

(Italy)

Role in project: Project Coordination

Contact person: Ms. BARANTANI Letizia

Website: http://www.math.unipr.it/home_1024.html

A.N. BAKH INSTITUTE OF BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

(Russia)

Contact person: POPOV Vladimir

Phone: +7-4959523441

Contact

AGRICOLA TRE VALLI SOCIETA COOPERATIVA

(Italy)

Contact person: VERONESE Filippo

Phone: +39-458097895

Contact

CORE BIOTECH SA

(Belgium)

Contact person: MONGIA Giulio

Phone: +32-26405942

Contact

MOBITEK-M

(Russia)

Contact person: LYBLINSKY Irina

Phone: +7-4843843667

Contact

STATE INSTITUTION ALL-RUSSIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR POULTRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY OF RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES GU VNIIPP

(Russia)

Contact person: GUSHCHIN Viktor

Phone: +7-4955359477

Contact

SYMBOL LTD

(Russia)

Contact person: SHIRIAEV Andrey

Phone: +7-4955000556

Contact

VLAAMSE INSTELLING VOOR TECHNOLOGISCH ONDERZOEK N.V.

(Belgium)

Contact person: Dr. PEYS Kurt

Website: http://www.vito.be

Phone: +32-14336941

Contact