Innovation: Support Action To Initiate Cooperation Between The Communities Of European Marine And Maritime Research And Science

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Nearly all significant developments in the marine/maritime area originate from Europe, a true maritime continent. Consequently, the Marine/Maritime Science and Research Communities are among the world leaders in their respective fields, disciplines and sectors. To maintain its leadership and competitiveness, Europe must take advantage of new market opportunities and address the global challenges by means of focused RDI. Unfortunately the complexity and intricacy of the marine/maritime area has lead to widespread fragmentation of research efforts and actors. It is therefore important to identify and establish appropriate mechanisms to strengthen the cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, key ferment for innovation, between both research communities.

To this effect, the ETP WATERBORNE and the informal Post Aberdeen Marine Interest Group came together as they would benefit from an appropriate and efficient cooperation framework to achieve the Lisbon agenda in a sustainable way. To tackle global issues such as Climate Change and Competitiveness, the different interests and elements affecting such matters need to be integrated in a consistent way. Building on the EU s Maritime Policy and ERA, the key challenge for the EU Policies is to enable sustainable economic expansion, taking into account the environmental, economical and social aspects in a holistic way.

This project will initiate the process for this holistic approach by identifying and generating a framework of cooperation for the two communities. It will focus on maritime transport but will form the basis for a wider reflection in the future. This framework would be build by identifying: the areas of common interest, of possible synergies and the most promising cooperation/integration structure. A Policy Interface Panel composed of representatives of the two Research Communities will be instrumental in reaching the largest possible consensus to ensure the best support and public awareness.

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Executive Summary:

Nearly all significant developments in the marine and maritime area originate from Europe, a true maritime continent. Consequently, the Marine/Maritime Science and Research Communities are among the world leaders in their respective fields, disciplines and sectors. To maintain its leadership and competitiveness, Europe must take advantage of new market opportunities and address the global challenges by means of focussed research development and innovation (RDI). Unfortunately the complexity and intricacy of the marine and maritime area has lead to widespread fragmentation of research efforts and actors. It is therefore important to identify and establish appropriate mechanisms to strengthen the cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, key ferment for innovation, between both research communities. To this effect, the European Technology Platform (ETP) Waterborne and the informal post Aberdeen marine interest group came together as they would benefit from an appropriate and
efficient cooperation framework to achieve the Lisbon agenda in a sustainable way. To tackle global issues such as climate change and competitiveness, the different interests and elements affecting such matters need to be integrated in a consistent way. Building on the European Unions (EU) maritime policy and European Research Area (ERA), the key challenge for the EU policies is to enable sustainable economic expansion, taking into account the environmental, economical and social aspects in a holistic way. This project will initiate the process for this holistic approach by identifying and generating a framework of cooperation for the two communities. It will focus on maritime transport but will form the basis for a wider reflection in the future. This framework would be build by identifying the areas of common interest, possible synergies and the most promising cooperation and integration structure. A policy interface panel composed of representatives of the two research communities
will be instrumental in reaching the largest possible consensus to ensure the best support and public awareness.

Project Context and Objectives:

EMAR2RES aims to provide a forum for interaction between Europes marine and maritime research communities, so that they can collectively work towards enhanced capability in marine and maritime research. This is essential to ensure that Europes capability is of internationally acknowledged excellence and of sufficient scale and critical mass to facilitate, promote and sustain intellectual interchange and discourse between those engaged in international research, fundamental to the principles of the Lisbon Agenda and the ERA.

The specific objectives of EMAR2RES are summarised as to:

1. support interaction between marine and maritime research communities to assist in the creation of the marine component of the ERA, facilitating the creation of an internal market and quantifying the existing European marine and maritime research capacity.
2. facilitate the networking of marine and maritime research communities in the EU leading to a more cost effective and efficient use of member states (MS) resources including scientific personnel, specialist infrastructures and planned investments.
3. contribute to the evolution of a European Marine Research Strategy, identifying future challenges and opportunities and the priority interdisciplinary research programmes that need to be put in place to address and benefit from them.
4. provide a basis for the sharing of available resources to address priority issues which are beyond the capacities of individual MS.
5. progress the inter-awareness between MS and EU marine and maritime research and technological development (RTD) programmes, towards collaboration between programmes, which has been identified as a key objective of the ERA.

The work packages (WP) and associated tasks have been carefully planned to ensure that they lead progressively through stages to develop achievements in adherence with the objectives of EMAR2RES. Each task has a task leader (TL), with responsibility to ensure the completion of the task; in addition, each WP has a WP leader, who will oversee the close interaction of each TL and also the continuation and flow of the tasks between WPs. That each TL is responsible for the budget associated with that task highlights the commitment by each TL to produce a deliverable in adherence with the objective of the task.

Major milestones

The consortium has identified several major milestones to answer EMAR2RES key objectives, amongst them:

1. consolidation of the consortium and creation of the steering committee (SC)
2. creation of the expert panel (EP) and policy interface panel (PIP)
3. identification of priority topics and activities of mutual relevance and benefit to the marine and maritime research communities in Europe
4. recommendations towards a joint action plan in preparation for durable cooperation between marine and maritime research communities
5. creation of the EMAR2RES forum.

As a cross-cutting activity within the surface transport priority, the support action EMAR2RES was to initiate a process of cooperation which made a important step towards integration of the marine and maritime science and research communities.

This process towards integration is the building block of the holistic approach, referred to in the European Maritime Policy and ERA, which should help tackle more efficiently and effectively key global challenges such as climate change and competitiveness.

EMAR2RES contributed to the research and maritime policies, including the European maritime policy and the ERA, at identifying possible synergies between those policies while addressing areas of common interest to both the communities with an underlying emphasis on global challenges such as climate change, strengthening competitiveness, greening surface transport (waterborne transport) and improving safety. EMAR2RES intends to provide de facto a forum for interaction between Europes marine and maritime research communities, so that they can collectively work towards enhanced capabilities.

To this end, EMAR2RES achieved the following objectives:

1. Inventory and analysis of the situation. The first objective was to link the medium and long term visions of the two communities using adequate foresight exercises, to identify their developmental strategies in terms of climate change and the relevance of cooperation towards the ERA and the knowledge based economy and finally to identify the key stakeholders in the relevant industry sectors, marine science fields and disciplines
2. Identification of areas of common interest towards a holistic approach and integration. Once the situation was described and analysed, the next objective of the project has been to organise appropriate workshops gathering the relevant experts from both communities and brainstorm on the areas of common interest, research needs and possible synergies focussed on, but not limited to, climate change, impacts on the marine environment and European competitiveness
3. Formulating the structure of cooperation. Building on the analysis and improved understanding of the situation as well as the findings from the workshops post analysis, the project formulated possible structures of cooperation between the two communities and proposed the most effective and long lasting ones in terms of added value, synergies and cross fertilisation taking into account public and private funding both at national and European level
4. Validation of findings. This objective was of paramount importance for the impact of the project and was continuously pursued. Building on the experience of the elaboration of the Waterborne Strategy and the Aberdeen Declaration, the project installed a PIP composed of representatives from Waterborne and the post Aberdeen marine interest group to reflect on the conclusions, draw recommendations and encourage the widest support from the two communities
6. Dissemination of findings. Conclusions and recommendations have been disseminated through all the appropriate media channels, including website, press releases, reports and final event; the originality of this projects dissemination strategy was to use the combined networks of Waterborne and the post Aberdeen marine interest group.

Project Results:

EMAR2RES provided an effective forum for interaction between Europes marine and maritime research communities, so that they could collectively work towards enhanced capability in marine and maritime research. This is essential to ensure that Europes capability is of internationally acknowledged excellence and of sufficient scale and critical mass to facilitate, promote and sustain intellectual interchange and discourse between those engaged in international research, fundamental to the principles of the relevant EU policies and instruments, such as the Lisbon Agenda EU2020, Innovation Union, White Paper on Transport, the joint programming initiative (JPI) Oceans and the ERA.

The specific objectives achieved by EMAR2RES are summarised as to:

1. support interaction between marine and maritime research communities to assist in the creation of the marine component of the ERA, facilitating the creation of an internal market and quantifying the existing European marine and maritime research capacity.
2. facilitated the networking of marine and maritime research communities in the EU leading to a more cost effective and efficient use of MS resources including scientific personnel, specialist infrastructures and planned investments.
3. contributed to the evolution of a European Marine Research Strategy, identifying future challenges and opportunities and the priority interdisciplinary research programmes that need to be put in place to address and benefit from them.
4. provided a basis for the sharing of available resources to address priority issues which are beyond the capacities of individual MS.
5. progressed the inter-awareness between MS and EU marine and maritime RTD programmes, towards collaboration between programmes which has been identified as a key objective of the ERA.

EMAR2RES is part of wider policy strategy put in place by the European Community (EC) to create synergies between the industrial maritime community and the marine one, part of this strategy is the development of the MARCOM+ project which is looking into all possible areas of collaboration between the two communities beyond the transport theme only. EMAR2RES and MARCOM+ are therefore constantly sharing results and coordinating through the common partners and the steering committees. Common final recommendations and models for a permanent method of collaboration are foreseen.

The project has successfully achieved all its targets installing the foreseen committees and panels and running six technical workshops at the presence of more than 70 experts to sketch the future of marine and maritime research under the transport perspective identifying at least five to six areas for research and development (R&D) collaboration among the two communities.

The areas under which common maritime transport related research needs to be undertaken are identified as:

1. impact of maritime transport on the marine environment (biological and chemical impacts), e.g. treatment of ballast water, accidental and operational emissions to the sea, accidental and operational emissions to the air and development of hull coatings and antifouling
2. water as a common medium (physical relationships), e.g. resistance and propulsion, underwater noise and vibration and impact on seabed morphology in restricted waters
3. monitoring climate change and the benefits of operational oceanography to maritime transport, e.g. collection of meteorological and oceanographic data (ship to scientists), sensors, telemetry, provision of end user information services through the integration of measurement, modelling and prediction using meteorological and oceanographic data, marine core information services to support e-maritime, e-navigation, traffic management, weather routing, arctic navigation, weather and sea state (tides, currents, waves) forecasts, oil spill monitoring, ballast water dispersion and global ship routing etc.
4. relationship between maritime transport and climate change, e.g. impacts on operations on ports and harbours, navigation and routing, impacts on vessel design, consequences of extreme weather and low carbon objectives.

In the following the main conclusions from the workshops are reported:

Workshop one

Impact of maritime transport on the marine environment (biological and chemical impact) towards of a 100 % efficient, low cost and effective ballast water treatment system in Europe. The marine and maritime research communities felt that there is an urgent need to:

1. agree, develop and implement common integrated frameworks regarding the different phases of processing systems (from detection to treatment)
2. develop sensor technologies in support of such processing systems: facilitate transferability methods between the maritime and marine research communities, establish a European market
3. implement the water footprint concept of human activities including transport (e.g. including cost benefit analysis of actions or no actions in preventing and mitigating biological pollution)
4. achieve a full categorisation of the environmental impacts of maritime transport to be disseminated to the general public. Towards the implementation of an integrated antifouling management system in Europe the marine and maritime research communities felt that there is an urgent need to:

1. develop completely environmentally friendly and hydrodynamically more efficient anti-fouling technology, using for instance bio-mimetic science
2. develop dedicated sensors for accurate measurements of hull surfaces including fouling affects and ship performance monitoring for fouling control
3. design new and effective antifouling agents
4. address commonly the challenge of bio-fouling on sensors
5. develop common tools (e.g. combined marine and maritime models) to reduce the biological growth in particular areas of the hull
6. monitor and analyse the sediment in ports to see the affects of antifouling (e.g. identification of the most vulnerable species)
6. develop and test new alternative paint striping media and equipment.

Workshop two

Impact of maritime transport on the marine environment (physical impact)

The expert group decided to use a risk assessment (RA) framework to consider the impacts and mitigation of hazards such as noise and air emissions on the marine ecosystem. The RA framework helps to rationalise the scientific research effort with a goal to best manage the risks and to support the decision making processes. The proposed approach is as follows:

1. generic (based on a standardised framework)
2. adaptive (mitigation feedback loop)
3. in line with the precautionary approach of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) good environmental status (GES)
3. structuring (in support of a decision-making process).

The RA framework aims to establish a robust research program allowing clear identification of research activities and actions with regards to noise and emission reductions. The RA frameworks for the impact of noise and atmospheric emissions are given in the following.

Workshop three

Monitoring the marine environment and the benefits of metocean data to maritime transport and climate change

1. Data collection. Set up collaborative research projects to target specific topics, e.g. changes to major currents, utilising the data collection capability of the maritime industry over a four to five year timescale.
2. Sensor system development, deployment and data communications. Initiate an audit of state of the art of sensor systems and services to identify gaps to focus effort in the development of future sensor systems and services. Initiate a feasibility study on the capacity to make water column measurements from moving maritime platforms.
3. Data management, i.e. data availability, data processing and data based services. Implement generic knowledge based tools and services for decision support for improved ship operations; evaluate the state of the art of data exchange in Europe, overcoming barriers to information flow, to address practical problems.
4. marine and maritime long-term collaboration. In order to develop improved knowledge based tools and services for safer and more sustainable and efficient ship operations, there will need to be close collaboration between the marine science and maritime communities, to determine the requirements of the industry and the potential contribution from the marine science community. An ongoing forum for such an exchange should be established and maintained.

Workshop four

Impact of climate change on maritime transport

Sea level rise

1. support new and joint infrastructure design studies drawing from common marine and maritime knowledge
2. design adapted defence plans in appropriate places, design retreat/relocation plans.

Arctic ice melting

1. support, develop and adapt new safety and security frameworks to operate in extreme environments
2. develop integrated assessments of ice melting impacts on the natural, social and economical components in the Arctic region.

Sea state

1. foster the collection and access of oceanographic data to generate the most suitable information for improved marine knowledge and effective maritime operations
2. support and improve marine data acquisition and collection in time and space outside the exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

Sediment patterns, river basins and floods

1. support the realisation of models on sedimentation processes at the European scale
2. support the elaboration of scenarios and adaptive management strategies for the assessment of flow changes and sedimentation patterns at the local and regional scales
3. carry out environmental impacts assessments in response to changing sedimentation patterns.

Biota

1. study the interactions and impacts of blooms on maritime transport operations.

Marine and maritime long-term collaboration

1. in order to develop improved knowledge based tools and services for safer and more sustainable ship operations in a climate change context, there will need to be close collaboration between the marine science and maritime communities, to determine the requirements of the industry and the potential contribution from the marine science community. An ongoing forum for such an exchange should be established and maintained.

Workshop five

Part A: Underwater noise.

This workshop brought together a core group of marine and maritime experts willing to assess current research gaps and needs in order to inform international regulations. The vision statement agreed by the all workshop participants which aims to encapsulate what they wanted to achieve at the workshop was to facilitate marine and maritime research cooperation. During the workshop two main important issues relating to underwater noise have been identified, namely low and mid frequency loud impulsive sounds (marine piling, seismic surveys, underwater explosions, naval sonar) and continuous low frequency sound (i.e. background noise) of which main sources are:

1. Shipping: hull (flow noise), operation, propulsion and propulsors (cavitation, propellers) and on board equipment (rotating equipment)
2. Offshore energies (offshore wind and currents through the structure and gear boxes)

The Expert Group focused on the issue of noise generated by shipping. The Expert Group at this EMAR2RES workshop have added the two following recommendations:

1. continued progress in justifying the biological significance of low frequency noise caused by shipping on fishes
2. quantifying the relevance of the particle motion component of underwater noise.

Part B: Arctic Ice melt, implications for maritime transport

This workshop brought together a core group of marine and maritime experts willing to:

1. facilitate marine and maritime research cooperation
2. develop proposals for the establishment of a future structure to deliver common advice on research priorities
develop a joint marine and maritime call topic in the frame of Framework Programme (FP) calls.

The vision statement agreed by workshop participants was to develop a concrete work plan (or design specific calls) on targeted research priorities in the Arctic.

Potential impact:

The four areas identified as of common interested in the two communities are the most tangible result of EMAR2RES because are stemming from a wide consultation on a consensus based approach between the relevant stakeholders.

From the four identified areas, by continuing in the use of the consensus based method, a number of more detailed priorities will be identified suitable for focused or integrated research projects to address the open topics. These four themes constitute the backbone of the future permanent collaboration between the maritime and marine communities beyond the duration of the project itself creating the basis for fruitful collaboration in Horizon 2020.

The final conference of the EMAR2RES project has been successfully organised in Brussels in close collaboration with MARCOM project. During the Fish&Ships conference the MARCOM+ marine maritime forum has been launched. EMAR2RES is founding partner of the forum contributing to it. A model for the structure of cooperation, suitable for marine maritime collaboration for transport related matter. As prototype and inception a panel on Under water noise has been launched and it is now acting as reference consultative body.

By performing its activities, delivering expected results, raising awareness about its findings and providing policy makers with concrete recommendations, EMAR2RES made the first steps towards the Integration of the marine and maritime science and research communities, for the benefit of European competitiveness under the transport area.

Many of the participants are linked with maritime industries, through various user fora and sustained and enhanced these links throughout EMAR2RES. EMAR2RES showed visions, purpose and foresight on how marine and maritime science can interconnect in a variety of research areas, with particular reference to climate change, the ERA and European competitiveness.

Widespread consensus on the importance of communication between science, industry and policy making and on how research and technology interact with their wider environments has been enhanced and demonstrated.

The EMAR2RES consortium foundations were laid during the process of securing EurOCEAN 2007 and the successful Aberdeen Declaration. The success of the Aberdeen Declaration is such that it has gathered a large amount of momentum, so that the total effort that EMAR2RES delivered represents many multiples of the EUs investment. EMAR2RES ensured and put in place a mechanism that its communities will continue to be informed of and contribute to the success of European developments. The framework proposed and carried out in EMAR2RES provided a first basis to initiate a holistic conceptual and pragmatic basis for scientific support to decision making towards integrated EU policies.

In answering this challenge, the Consortium focused on three aspects:

1. ensured that policy actions are well informed as to the marine and maritime research behind their decisions; this was addressed via the PIP and the forum, to support enhanced scientific evidence based policy making
2. decision making based on a better understanding of the full costs and benefits of use and protection of ecosystem goods and services; this will be addressed via the EP and workshops
3. ensured that social needs are fully considered and that governance systems developed are socially coherent; this has been addressed via output from the workshops into the PIP and the forum.

EMAR2RES results will also have particular relevance to the maritime research strategy as it will enable specific themes to be developed and tested at the scale intended for the implementation of the maritime research strategy.

EMAR2RES forum, incorporated in the MARCOM+ forum, seeks to carry out and to develop effective mechanisms to provide policy-makers with scientific knowledge to support ocean governance aiming at the sustainable management of resources beyond the duration of the project.

EMAR2RES outputs

Building on the experience gained during the course of the project and in particular from the panel of experts (PoE), on the PIP advice and on the brainstorming exercises carried out in the five technical workshops, the EMAR2RES steering committee discussed possible long lasting and effective forms of cooperation.

In order to complement the project outputs and feed in its reflection, the EMAR2RES steering committee identified two existing models for cooperation of relevance:

1. the International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC), first convened in 1933
2. the International Ship Structure Congress (ISSC), first convened in 1961.

Both models are purpose driven and organised in form of conferences every three years (funded by registration fees). Both models are organised though committees which are tasked to address specific themes of relevance for the conference; the committees work on a voluntary basis. The research needed is also carried out on a voluntary basis and the costs are borne by the participant organisations.

Basic requirements

Based on the analysis of EMAR2RES outputs and the operations of the ITTC and ISSC, the EMAR2RES steering committee agreed on a set of basic requirements:

1. the cooperative structure can properly work only if is built on actual common research needs in which both communities see benefit and added value in collaboration
2. the identified structure should primarily address transport related matters but its scope could also be extended to energy and raw materials
3. the first scientific themes to be addressed by the proposed structure of cooperation could stem from the areas of common interest identified in the EMAR2RES workshops
4. the form of cooperation should be as light as possible in terms of structure and administrative governing bodies
5. no membership fees should be levied.

Based on the above requirements, the EMAR2RES steering committee is confident that the marine and maritime research communities, as well as the marine one, could endorse the exercise and activate the collaboration.

EMAR2RES model and objectives

It is suggested that the EMAR2RES model could take the form of an EMAR2RES meeting and workshop which would support a regular brainstorming exercise. The latter will aim to develop a platform for cooperative research between the marine and maritime communities on research areas for which a mutual benefit has been assessed and demonstrated.

The founding principle is a purpose driven cooperative model to ensure that areas of common interests and opportunities for cooperation are identified and tackled. The EMAR2RES process could lead to the setting up of ad hoc short to medium term activities, which in turn could lead to the release of statements, reports, facts and figures and briefings targeted towards participants and their communities, stakeholders and policy makers. Such outputs would be specifically designed to influence relevant research agendas and marine and maritime policy.

Potential participants

The model is not based on membership and the potential participants can be, in principle, all the stakeholders identified in the EMAR2RES stakeholders identification report and beyond if deemed relevant. A participant can also be an individual person and not necessary a legal entity. For the marine community, institutes and researchers dealing with marine and coastal environments are the most probable interested participants.

For the maritime community, research institutes, research organisations and individual researchers are the most probable interested participants. If and when, during the development in the identified research areas, the results will be mature for technological implementation and market uptake then the maritime research community will liaise with the maritime industry for dissemination and exploitation of the results.

The role of the ETPs, and the Waterborne TP in particular, is to guarantee an efficient dissemination level in the maritime community making sure that the stakeholders are kept properly informed and have all elements to decide on their direct participation in the conference.

Thematic scope

Identification and selection of appropriate themes for the potential EMAR2RES activities will be selected according to their likelihood of fostering synergies between the two research communities and allowing concrete collaborations.

Themes which were explored during EMAR2RES first phase, which could be further explored in the next EMAR2RES phase, of post Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding

Impact of maritime transport on the marine environment (biological and chemical impacts):

1. treatment of ballast water
2. accidental and operational emissions to the sea
3. accidental and operational emissions to the air
4. development of hull coatings and antifouling.

Water as a common medium (physical relationships):

1. resistance and propulsion
2. underwater noise and vibration
3. impact on seabed morphology in restricted waters.

Monitoring climate change and the benefits of operational oceanography to maritime transport, e.g.

1. collection of meteorological and oceanographic data (ship to scientists), sensors and telemetry
2. provision of end user information services through the integration of measurement, modelling and prediction, using meteorological and oceanographic data
3. marine core information services to support e-maritime, e-navigation, traffic management, weather routing, arctic navigation, weather and sea state (tides, currents, waves) forecasts, oil spill monitoring, ballast water dispersion and global ship routing etc.

Relationship between maritime transport and climate change, e.g.

1. impacts on operations on ports and harbours, navigation and routing
2. impacts on vessel design, consequences of extreme weather and low carbon objectives.

These four themes identified as of common interested in the two communities are the most tangible result of EMAR2RES project because are stemming from a wide consultation on a consensus based approach between the relevant stakeholders.

Themes which could be explored in the next EMAR2RES phase (post FP7 funding) include:

1. impact of maritime transport on coastal zones and the seabed (dredging, morphology, etc.)
2. navigation, including weather routing, traffic management, arctic navigation, ports and harbours and safe-havens
3. relation of maritime transport with other marine users, including fisheries, leisure, hydrocarbons, renewable energy
4. application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in marine information services, e-navigation etc.

These themes and new ones (which may or may not be selected on the basis of the research need of the moment) would constitute the backbone of the future collaboration between the marine and maritime transport communities beyond the duration of the project itself creating the basis for fruitful collaboration in Horizon 2020.

Operational structure and governance

The cooperative model is organised in the form of a regular EMAR2RES meeting and workshop to be held every two years (indicative) at related high level events, such as European maritime day conference (EMD), EurOCEAN conferences the foreseen MARCOM+ conferences etc.

The EMAR2RES meeting would consist of a brainstorming exercise:

1. research themes of mutual interest are identified
2. indicative objectives and targets are defined
3. one facilitator per theme, possibly two co-facilitators (i.e. one marine, one maritime) are identified
4. potential experts to contribute to a future activity are suggested.

Updates and reporting on ongoing or completed activities were also included.

Chairperson

The chairperson of the cooperative model is the chairperson of the EMAR2RES process. The chairperson is selected (i.e. elected) at the end of a given EMAR2RES meeting and is in charge until the next one for an indicative period of two years.

Expert groups

For each identified research theme, one to two facilitators are mandated to set up an expert group. The facilitators will take responsibility for the scientific and administrative organisation of each activity related to the identified theme; this includes drafting terms of reference and work programmes, issuing invitations, preparing agendas etc. and taking responsibility for the activity moderation. Individuals taking part in the activity will be invited according to their expertise and their involvement in the related issues. The members of the expert groups should be limited in number, i.e. 10 to 15. It is believed that in the inception phase no further rules are needed to appoint the committees members.

The number of expert groups (i.e. the number of research themes) can vary and each single expert group can be created or disbanded upon consensus amongst expert group facilitators and members and the EMAR2RES chairperson. Should the expected benefits of cooperation on a given theme turn out to insufficient, an expert group may be discontinued, according to the survival of the fittest principle.

The expert group undertakes its tasks following specific terms of reference. The latter document, drafted by the group facilitators and agreed by group members, defines the context, the objectives, the tasks, the expected outputs and the targets of the group. Each group remains free to organise itself in terms of method of work and meetings (virtual or physical). The expert group will choose the most appropriate instrument(s) to undertake its tasks according to the variable geometry principle.

Activities, instruments and products

The practical activities, studies, analyses and considerations are carried out in the expert groups on a voluntary basis. Group members can take advantage of their own research and knowledge or of the research and knowledge resident in their organisations and feed the results into the expert group work to address their tasks.

An expert group could for instance:

1. convene a series of workshops on a given topic
2. produce a joint (marine and maritime research) statement to highlight the urgency to tackle a specific matter
3. produce a publication with targeted recommendations to be taken up by the marine and maritime science communities themselves, by policy makers, programmes mangers, etc.
4. draft texts of FP type calls for proposals and submit to the EC.

The developed EMAR2RES foresight method could be used, as seen fit, to conduct EMAR2RES activities post FP7 funding. An EMAR2RES branding (use of EMAR2RES logo for instance) could be developed and used to label the products released through such process (upon approval by the EMAR2RES chairperson in liaison with groups facilitators).

Incentive to participate

Outputs and impacts

The main reason for the participation to the cooperative model by the marine and maritime research communities is in the focus and potential benefit to tackle a particular problem or issue.

Examples include:

1. reducing biofouling to increase sailing efficiency of a ship with a consequent reduction fuel consumption, emissions and costs
2. reducing noise generated from merchant shipping through efficient design of propellers with reduced noise emissions for the direct benefit of marine life. In this frame it is clear as a purpose-driven model is sustainable because based on interest in the two communities, namely the marine one in addressing some specific areas might see solved or mitigated some of the top agenda priorities (such as invading species, noise, acidification etc.) and the maritime one might see solved or mitigated some of the top agenda priorities (such as fouling, noise and propulsion efficiency, ballast water treatments etc.).

Support mechanisms

The cooperative model is not financially supported beyond participants in-kind contributions (time, T&S). The participation is organised on a voluntary basis.

Relationship with MARCOM+ partnership

The MARCOM+ project Towards an integrated marine and maritime science community.

? The overall objective of the MARCOM+ project, which lasted from January 2010 to April 2012, was to propose a new, integrated governance and consultancy model in the form of a forum, namely the European marine and maritime science and technology forum. Commencing with delivering a synthesis of the policy scene and a review of existing governance frameworks and partnerships, the group assessed the important collaboration mechanisms and tools for integrated ocean governance. The project was designed to develop mechanisms to address key research questions at the interface between the marine and maritime realm in an integrated and coherent manner. The consortium would furthermore ensure proper communication of proceedings, results and recommendations amongst the stakeholders. The MARCOM+ forum scope is wider than that of EMAR2RES and addresses the full spectrum of ocean related activities. The MARCOM+ has tentatively identified macro-areas for the forum, including:

1. aquatic living resources (sustainability, coastal and sea based aquaculture, capture fisheries, transport and processing, future vessels)
2. ocean energy (synergies between ocean energy/fisheries and aquaculture, green off-shore installations, cost-effectiveness)
3. ocean resources for blue biotechnology (pharmaceuticals, material research for maritime products)
4. impact of climate change on maritime activities
5. human activities and impact on ecosystems (resilience, vulnerability, marine litter)
6. maritime spatial planning (including building with nature, coastal architecture and maintenance)
7. human health and wellness (from the oceans)
8. non living sea resources (including extraction technologies)
9. maritime transports and bio-invasions.

Relevant information could be obtained at the projects website, at http://www.marinemaritimescienceforum.eu.

Key aspects of the EMAR2RES and MARCOM+ interactions

According to MARCOM+ coordination team:

1. not all the macro-areas would be activated at the beginning of the cooperation (i.e. post FP7 funding). Two to three would be targeted in the short term
2. one of these activated areas would be transport under the umbrella of the EMAR2RES cooperative model.

Most of the EMAR2RES research topics can be accommodated in the transport area. Two to three research themes in the transport would most likely be investigated at the launch of EMAR2RES cooperative structure. Some EMAR2RES themes may also be related to areas of MARCOM+ such as energy and raw materials, but in general the EMAR2RES model can sustain itself in terms of organisational and thematic issues. The EMAR2RES model can be used also by other areas in the envisaged MARCOM+ structure as the cooperative model proposed is not topic specific in terms of its structure. The proposed model can establish synergies with the envisaged MARCOM+ forum. The EMAR2RES brainstorming exercise (workshop) could be organised back to back with MARCOM+ conferences. At the end of 2011, an online survey was launched by the marine board to collect feedbacks on the EMAR2RES workshops series, its modus operandi, its outcomes and lessons for the future.

Despite a low response rate, of only 20 %, some lessons or at least trends can be suggested, e.g.:

1. EMAR2RES workshops were useful as a forum to exchange knowledge and experience between marine and maritime experts on a particular topic or challenge (100 % of responders agree or completely agree)
2. joint workshops can be considered as a useful tool to better address emerging science needs and challenges (73 % of responders agree or completely agree) and to better respond to emerging policy and societal needs (82 % of responders agree or completely agree).

Based on the project outputs and the (partial) feedback from involved individuals, the EMAR2RES consortium proposes a purpose driven cooperative model between the marine research and maritime research communities that could demonstrate itself sustainable and efficient to address topics for which clear mutual benefits are anticipated. Lessons learned and options for a successful future phase of the EMAR2RES process are highlighted below.

It is crucial to maintain a partnership approach in addressing some of Europes key challenges at the interface between marine and maritime transport research. The EMAR2RES FP7 project highlighted the value of working in partnership with other European marine and maritime research platforms and networks. Such partnership should be continued and strengthened in the post funding phase of the EMAR2RES process.

Since the EMAR2RES proposal submission in summer 2008 European research landscape and policy priorities have evolved. There is now a much stronger emphasis at both EU and national level on the need for research to deliver new knowledge which will directly support innovation, job creation and economic growth. In order to maximise the success of future cooperation and ensure the uptake and impact of its outputs, an understanding of the evolving European policy landscape is necessary. Representation of both marine and maritime science communities was balanced at the EMAR2RES workshops (five in total in 2010 and 2011). However the involvement of maritime participants was more difficult to secure than that of marine participants (travel and subsistence costs were covered but no per diem were allocated to workshop participants). The success of future cooperation will depend on equal and committed participation by both communities. Future success in mobilising the relevant partners
(especially maritime ones) will rely heavily on a clear demonstration of the added value to be gained from the joint activities of the marine and maritime science communities. Formulated recommendations may act as a catalyst and to feed relevant national and international activities. The former should be considered as incentives for participation from all relevant sides. The success of future cooperation will depend upon a clear communication of the process outputs to ensure their uptake and impact.

List of websites:

http://www.emar2res.eu.

Collaboration sought: N/A

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This innovation is the result of the project

Title: Support Action To Initiate Cooperation Between The Communities Of European Marine And Maritime Research And Science

Acronym: 
EMAR2RES

Runtime: 
01.11.2009 to 31.05.2012

Status: 
completed project

Organisations and people involved in this eco-innovation.

Please click on an entry to view all contact details.

COMMUNITY OF EUROPEAN SHIPYARDS ASSOCIATIONS ASBL

(Belgium)

Role in project: Project Coordination

Contact person: Ms. VERHOEVEN Véronique

Website: http://www.cesa.eu/

Phone: +32-22820354

Contact

EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR MARITIME APPLIED R&D ASSOCIATION

(Belgium)

Contact person: Dr. MORRALL Tony

Website: http://www.ecmar.eu

Phone: +44-7989322494

Contact

EUROPEAN MARINE EQUIPMENT COUNCIL/CONSEIL EUROPEEN DE L'EQUIPMENT NAVAL

(Belgium)

Contact person: Ms. LANCELLOTTI Paola

Website: http://www.emecweb.eu

Phone: +32-22309064

Contact

FONDATION EUROPEENNE DE LA SCIENCE

(France)

Contact person: Mr. WEBER David

Website: http://www.esf.org

Phone: +33-388767110

Contact

FOUNDATION WEGEMT - A EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES IN MARINE TECHNOLOGY AND RELATED SCIENCES

(Netherlands)

Contact person: Ms. AGIASOPHITI Zoe

Website: http://www.wegemt.org/

Phone: +44-2071938248

Contact